With the Yangtze River on the north side, and surrounded on the other three sides by hills, Nanjing was thought to be auspicious as well as strategically important. The Nanjing area has been inhabited for about 5000 years, and a number of prehistoric sites have been discovered in or around the city. Recorded history, however, begins in the Warring States Period (475 - 221 BC), when Nanjing emerged as a strategic object of conflict. In 475 BC, Guojian, King of the State of Yue, conquered the State of Wu, and Fanli, his prime minister, built a city at Changganli of Nanjing, which was the first city wall of Nanjing. In 334 BC, King Weiwan of State Chu defeated the State Yue and occupied all the land. Being afraid that another ruler would emerge from this area, King Weiwang chose a place and buried a gold man statue there to suppress such thing to happen, From then on, Nanjing has also been called "Jinling" - mausoleum of gold.
After Qinshihuang, the first emperor of China, unified the whole country in 221 BC, the name of Jinling was changed to Moling County. In AD 221, at the end of the Han Dynasty, Sun Quan of the State Wu moved his capital from Jingkou (today's Zhenjiang) to Moling, and converted the name of Moling into Jianye the following year. Whe Sun Quan crowned himself as an emperor, he made Jianye his capital. This was the beginning of the history of Nanjing as a capital.
After the State Wu, the Eastern Jin Dynasty and the Southern Dynasties (Song, Qi, Liang, and Chen), altogether six dynasties had Jianye as their capital. Later, the Southern Tang of the Five Dynasties, the early Ming Dynasty, and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Revolution led by Hong Xiuquan (1814-1864), and the Provisional Government of the Republic of China made Nanjing their capital one after another, for a total period of 449 years. Therefore, the city was also called the "capital of ten dynasties".
Today, Nanjing is the capital city of Jiangsu Province, covering an area of 6,421 square kilometers with a population of over 5.37 million. Its industries included machine-manufacture, automobile, assembly, electronics, petroleum, iron and steel, textile, shipbuilding and foodstuff.
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