The Zhou Dynasty, from 1027 to approximately 221 B.C., was the longest dynasty in Chinese history, and in terms of written script, it spanned the period from ancient oracle script to modern Chinese writing. The capital of Zhou was known as Hao, located near Chang'an (today's Xi'an).
It could be divided into Western Zhou and Eastern Zhou. Then East Zhou included Spring & Autumn Period and Warring States Period. The capital of Western Zhou was known as Haojing near Chang'an (present-day Xi'an) and that of Eastern Zhou was Luoyi (present-day Luoyang in Henan Province). The rulers of Zhou Dynasty invoked the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to legitimize his rule, a concept that became influential for almost every successive dynasty.
The Hundred Schools of Thought of Chinese philosophy blossomed during Spring & Autumn Period. Such intellectual movements as Confucianism, Taoism, Legalism and Mohism were founded. This era also produced the philosophers Lao Zi, Confucius, Mencius and Mo Zi, as well as the military scientist Sunwu (Sun Zi), author of the masterpiece the Art of War.
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