Ethnic Groups in China

China is a large country noted for its dense population and vast territory. At present, there are altogether 1.4 billion people from 56 ethnic groups in China. The defining elements of an ethnic group are language, homeland, and social values. As the majority of the population is of the Han ethnic group, the other 55 ethnic groups are customarily referred to as ethnic minorities because of their relatively smaller population size compared with Han people.

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Ethnic groups in china facts

The ethnic groups in China include: Han, Achang, Bai, Blang, Bonan, Bouyei, Dai, Daur, De'ang, Dong, Dongxiang, Dulong, Ewenki, Gaoshan, Gelo, Hani, Hezhe, Hui, Jing, Jino, Jingpo, Kazak, Kirgiz, Korean, Lahu, Li, Lisu, Lhoba, Manchu, Maonan, Miao, Moinba, Mongolian, Mulam, Naxi, Nu, Oroqen, Ozbek, Pumi, Qiang, Russian, Salar, She, Shui, Tatar, Tajik, Tibetan, Tu, Tujia, Uygur, Wa, Xibe, Yao, Yi, Yugur, Zhuang.

Various ethnic groups are widely scattered in China. In most of China's cities and county town, two or more ethnic groups live together. There are ethnic minorities living in Han nationality areas and Han people living in ethnic minority autonomous regions. This distribution pattern is formed by the interaction and flow of various ethnic groups in the long historical development process.

Ethnic groups in china statistics

According to the fifth national census taken in 2000, the Han people made up 91.59 percent of the country's total population, totaling 1159.4 million; and the other 55 ethnic groups, 8.41 percent, totaling 106.43 million. The Han people can be found throughout the country, though mainly on the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, the Yangtze River and the Pearl River valleys, and the Northeast Plain. The ethnic minorities, though fewer in number, are also scattered over a vast area, mainly distributed in the border regions from northeast China to north, northwest and southwest China.

Yunnan province has the largest ethnic composition in China, with 52 of the country's 56 ethnic groups, including 26 ethnic groups with a population of more than 5,000, and 25 ethnic minorities except the Han.

Guizhou is another province where many ethnic groups live together. There are 56 ethnic groups in guizhou, among which the Han, Miao, Buyi, Dong, Tujia, Yi, Gelao, Shui, Hui, Bai, Yao, Zhuang, She, Maonan, Manchu, Mongolian, Mulam and Qiang are the 18 main ethnic groups in Guizhou.

ethnic people in China

Ethnic groups in china policy

China exercises a policy of regional autonomy for various ethnic groups, allowing ethnic groups living in compact communities to establish self-government and direct their own affairs.

In May 1947, China established its first provincial-level ethnic autonomous region -- Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region -- under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.

After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and Tibet Autonomous Region were successively established. By 2017, 155 ethnic autonomous areas had been established, including five autonomous regions, 30 autonomous prefectures and 120 autonomous counties.

Of the 55 ethnic minorities in China, 44 have established ethnic autonomous areas. The number and layout of autonomous areas basically correspond to the distribution and composition of China's ethnic groups.

Ethnic groups in china languages and religions

Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the Party and the government have adhered to the policy of ethnic equality and language equality, and the use and development of spoken and written languages of ethnic minorities have received due respect and legal protection.

Among the 55 ethnic minorities, 54 have their own languages, except the Hui, who have all switched to Chinese. With the acceleration of China's modernization, some minority languages are in danger of dying out. Although China has made some achievements in the protection of minority languages, the situation of language diversity protection is still grim.

China is a country with many religions, mainly Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism, and Protestantism. Most of the ethnic minorities in China have religious beliefs.

Among China's ethnic minorities, Tibetan, Mongolian, Tuan, Yugu, Mengba, Pumi and Naxi believe in Tibetan Buddhism (also known as Lamaism); Dai, Brown, Deang believe in Hinayana/Theravada Buddhism, ten ethnic groups including Hui, Uygur, Kazak, Dongxiang, Bao 'an, Salah, Kirgiz, Tatar, Uzbek and Tajik believe in Islam; Part of yi, Miao, Lahu, Jingpo, and Susu believe in Christianity.

Small groups of ethnic Russians and Ewenki follow orthodox Christianity. Some ethnic minorities, such as dulong, Nu, Wa, Jingpo, Gaoshan, Oroqen and Lhoba, still maintain their primitive worship of nature and various beliefs.

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    What are the major ethnic groups in china?

    According to the fifth national census in 2000, 18 ethnic minorities have a population of over one million, namely the Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uygur, Yi, Tujia, Mongolian, Tibetan, Bouyei, Dong, Yao, Korean, Bai, Hani, Li, Kazak and Dai.

    What are the 3 largest ethnic groups in china?

    Han, population of 1.3 billion. Han nationality is the name of the Huaxia nationality. The appellation began in the Han Dynasty over 2000 years ago and is still used today.

    Zhuang, population of 17 million, has the largest population of ethnic minorities in China, and mainly lives in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region other some other areas of Southern China.

    Hui, population of 1.06 million, is the most widely distributed minority in China.

    The 56 ethnic groups in china:

    Chinese NameEnglish Name/Code Pinyin Population (by 2010) Main Distribution Area 
    Han/HAhàn zú1.3billion Across the country
    壮族Zhuang/ZHZhuàng Zú16,926,381xGuangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Yunnan Province, Guangdong Province, Guizhou Province 
    满族Man/MAMǎn Zú10,387,958xLiaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Hebei, Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Guangdong, Shandong, Fujian, Hunan, Yunnan province, Beijing, Tianjin, Inner Mongolia autonomous region, Xinjiang uygur autonomous region, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Hainan, Taiwan, Hong Kong special administrative region
    维吾尔族Uyghur/UGWéiwúěr Zú10,069,346xXinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Hunan Province
    苗族Miao/MHMiáo Zú9,426,007xGuizhou, Yunnan, Hunan, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Sichuan, Guangdong, Hubei, Hainan, Chongqing
    土家族Tujia/TJTǔjiā Zú8,353,912xHunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Guizhou, Chongqing
    彝族Yi/YIYí Zú8,714,393xSichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    蒙古族Mongol/MGMěnggǔ Zú5,981,840xInner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Qinghai, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Hebei province, Henan Province, Gansu Province, Yunnan Province
    藏族Tibetan/ZAZàng Zú6,282,187xTibet Autonomous Region, Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu, Yunnan
    布依族Buyei/BYBùyī Zú2,870,034x Guizhou
    侗族Dong/DODòng Zú2,879,974xGuizhou province, Hunan Province, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    瑶族Yao/YAYáo Zú2,796,003xGuangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Hunan, Yunnan, Guangdong, Guizhou, Sichuan
    朝鲜族Korean/CSCháoxiǎn Zú 1,830,929xJilin province, Heilongjiang Province, Liaoning Province, Beijing, Shanghai City, Guangdong Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    白族Bai/BABái Zú1,933,510Yunnan, Guizhou
    哈尼族Hani/HNHāní Zú1,660,932xYunnan
    哈萨克族Kazak/KZHāsàkè Zú1,462,588xXinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Gansu Province
    黎族Li/LILí Zú1,463,064Hainan, Guangdong
    傣族Dai/DADǎi Zú1,261,311Yunnan
    畲族She/SHShē Zú708,651Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Anhui, Shanghai
    傈僳族Lisu/LSLìsù Zú702,839xYunnan, Sichuan
    仡佬族Gelao/GLGēlǎo Zú550,746Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    东乡族Dongxiang/DXDōngxiāng Zú621,500Gansu Province, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
    高山族Gaoshan/GSGāoshān Zú494,107Taiwan, Fujian
    拉祜族Lahu/LHLāhù Zú485,966Yunnan
    水族Sui/SUShuǐ Zú411,847Guizhou Province, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    佤族Va/VAWǎ Zú429,709Yunnan
    纳西族Naxi/NXNàxī Zú326,295Yunnan, Sichuan
    羌族Qiang/QIQiāng Zú309,576Sichuan
    土族Tu/TUTǔ Zú289,565Qinghai Province, Gansu Province
    锡伯族Xibe/XBXíbó Zú190,481Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Liaoning Province, Jilin Province
    柯尔克孜族Kirgiz/KGKēěrkèzī Zú186,708Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Heilongjiang Province
    达斡尔族Daur/DUDáwòěr Zú131,992Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    景颇族Jingpo/JPJǐngpō Zú147,828Yunnan
    毛南族Maonan/MNMàonán Zú101,192Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    撒拉族Salar/SLSǎlá Zú130,607Qinghai Province, Gansu Province
    布朗族Blang/BLBùlǎng Zú119,639Yunnan
    塔吉克族Tajik/TA Tǎjíkè Zú51,069Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
    阿昌族Achang/ACĀchāng Zú39,555Yunnan
    普米族Pumi/PMPǔmǐ Zú42,861Yunnan
    鄂温克族Ewenki/EWÈwēnkè Zú30,875Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Heilongjiang Province
    怒族Nu/NUNù Zú37,523Yunnan
    京族Gin/GIJīng Zú28,199Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    基诺族Jino/JNJīnuò Zú23,143Yunnan
    德昂族Deang/DEDéáng Zú20,556Yunnan
    保安族Bonan/BOBǎoān Zú20,074Gansu Province
    俄罗斯族Russ/RSÉluōsī Zú15,393xXinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Heilongjiang Province
    裕固族Yugur/YGYùgù Zú14,378Gansu Province
    乌兹别克族Uzbek/UZWūzībiékè Zú10,569Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
    门巴族Monba/MBMénbā Zú10,561Tibet Autonomous Region 
    鄂伦春族Oroqen/ORÈlúnchūn Zú8,659Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Heilongjiang Province
    独龙族Derung/DRDúlóng Zú6,930Yunnan
    塔塔尔族Tatar/TTTǎtǎěr Zú3,556xXinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
    赫哲族Hezhen/HZHèzhé Zú5,354Heilongjiang Province
    珞巴族Lhoba/LBLuòbā Zú3,682xTibet Autonomous Region 



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